Date of Award




Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)


Department of Anthropology

Content Description

1 online resource (iii, 93 pages) : illustrations (some color), color map.

Dissertation/Thesis Chair

Adam D Gordon

Committee Members

Sean M Rafferty


Archaic, Historic, Musculoskeletal markers, New York State, Robusticity, Woodland, Musculoskeletal system, Woodland culture, Woodland Indians

Subject Categories

Biological and Physical Anthropology | History of Art, Architecture, and Archaeology


The purpose of this project is to compare the relative robusticity between native populations in New York State from the Archaic, Woodland, and Historic time periods. Musculoskeletal markers are used to determine any similarities and differences in robusticity between ages, sexes, and time periods. Relative robusticity is also assessed in terms of upper and lower limbs to further investigate any habitual activity patterns that can be discerned between groups. It is hypothesized that the Archaic populations would be comparatively more robust than the Woodland and Historic periods. In addition, males would be more robust than females, and robusticity would increase with age. The general hypothesis of decreased robusticity with time was found to be statistically significant. In addition, males were found to be more robust than females, particularly in upper limbs, in both Archaic and Woodland periods. Furthermore, Woodland adults were found to have more robust upper limbs while Archaic adolescents had more robust lower limbs. These differences in robusticity patterns suggest underlying differences in physical activities performed within these native communities, and how native lifestyles changed over time.