Date of Award




Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)


Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology


School Psychology

Content Description

1 online resource (viii, 76 pages) : illustrations.

Dissertation/Thesis Chair

Benjamin G Solomon

Committee Members

David N Miller, Matthew LaFave


direct instruction, flashcard, incremental rehearsal, reading intervention, sight word, traditional drill and practice, Word recognition, Reading, Vocabulary, Reading (Elementary)

Subject Categories

Educational Psychology | Educational Technology | Language and Literacy Education


The purpose of the present study was to compare the efficiency of three tablet-based flashcard sight word interventions with varying ratios of known to unknown material that have historically been administered in paper-based form. To control for level of intervention duration, which tends to vary due to the presence of different amounts of known items across the conditions, the OTR for each flashcard procedure across intervention sessions were fixed. Additionally, this study investigated four specific outcome variables for each intervention: (a) the rate of learning new sight words (i.e., acquisition per minute of instruction), (b) skill maintenance of learned sight words at two-week follow-up, (c) the generalizability of newly-learned sight words to paper-based reading, (d) the degree to which the interventions were administered with integrity. Overall, results were positive. One condition, DI, was eliminated due to technical glitches in the software mid-intervention and will not be discussed further. For the other two conditions, acquisition, retention, and generalization of sight words was comparable to that of other studies that used paper-based cards and manual administration. Efficiency was comparable amongst the two remaining interventions.