Date of Award




Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology


Educational Psychology and Methodology

Content Description

1 online resource (xv, 183 pages) : illustrations (some color)

Dissertation/Thesis Chair

Lynn M Gelzheiser

Committee Members

David Dai, Kevin Quinn


Engagement, Interactive Strategies Approach-Extended, Motivation, Observational Measurement, Reading, Reading (Elementary), Motivation in education, Reading promotion

Subject Categories

Educational Psychology | Elementary Education | Language and Literacy Education


The Interactive Strategy Approach -Extended (ISA-X) reading intervention was provided to 3rd and 4th grade struggling readers in three school districts. A first question was to determine if students participating in the intervention showed greater reading motivation than those in a control group. A total of 103 students had been assessed for reading accuracy and comprehension as well as reading motivation using the Reading Engagement Index (REI). An experimental approach to analysis was used. January motivation scores were examined in order to compare a control group (students receiving supplementary AIS instruction) and treatment group (students receiving ISA-X intervention). Although the ISA-X treatment group earned a higher rating than the control group, the results for reading motivation only approached significance. A second question was to determine if a researcher-developed observational measurement produced comparable motivation ratings to the REI teacher rating. The REI-Observational version used the same behavioral indices as the REI along with detailed rubrics and breakdowns of behaviors seen during observations. The levels of the original REI rating scale (Not True, Somewhat True, etc..) were described for each behavior, as was the frequency of the behaviors. A case study approach was used and participating cases were students with all reading and motivation data points, as well as parent permission to be video-taped. The fifteen students were broken into two groups: those who showed increases in reading scores and motivation based on the REI, and those who showed increases in reading scores only. Each student was rated using the REI Observational twice throughout the intervention using video-taped sessions. The results of each groups' REI and REI Observational ratings were compared by behavior. An examination of the results indicated two types of bias in the REI teacher rating scale: under-rater error and Halo effect. More consistent ratings on the REI Observational indicate that these biases were controlled for by using the observational measurement. Instructional benefits to using observational measurement in the assessment of reading motivation were also revealed as the observations can provide teachers with valuable information regarding their students' individual motivational needs.