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To quantify dynamic protein synthesis rates, we developed MITNCAT, a method combining multiplexed isobaric mass tagging with pulsed SILAC (pSILAC) and bio-orthogonal non-canonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) to label newly synthesized proteins with azidohomoalanine (Aha), thus enabling high temporal resolution across multiple conditions in a single analysis. MITNCAT quantification of protein synthesis rates following induction of the unfoldedprotein response revealed global down-regulation of protein synthesis, with stronger down-regulation of glycolytic and protein synthesis machinery proteins, but up-regulation of several key chaperones. Waves of temporally distinct protein synthesis were observed in response to epidermal growth factor, with altered synthesis detectable in the first 15 min. Comparison of protein synthesis with mRNA sequencing and ribosome footprinting distinguished protein synthesis driven by increased transcription versus increased translational efficiency. Temporal delays between ribosome occupancy and protein synthesis were observed and found to correlate with altered codon usage in significantly delayed proteins.


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