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A surge in heterosexual transmission of HIV among men in post-Soviet countries prompts the need to understand the determinants of HIV testing in the region. Survey data from Belarus (n = 2,769), Moldova (n = 1,545), and Ukraine (n = 3,620) were used to assess an influence of psychosocial determinants on testing among men. A mediation analysis for binary outcomes was used to assess effects of knowledge and stigma on testing. While knowledge had a positive influence on testing in each country, an indirect influence of knowledge through stigma was unique for each country. Implications for interventions and social work are discussed in the light of findings.


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This is the Author's Accepted Manuscript of the following article made available by Taylor & Francis: Urbaeva, Z., & Warner, L. (2018). Relationships between HIV testing, knowledge, and stigma among men: Reports from Belarus, Moldova, and Ukraine. Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services, 17(1), 56-68. doi:

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