Date of Award




Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Department of Nanoscale Science and Engineering


Nanoscale Engineering

Content Description

1 online resource (xi, 176 pages) : illustrations (some color)

Dissertation/Thesis Chair

Gregory Denbeaux

Committee Members

Robert Brainard, Kathleen Dunn, John Hartley, Chiew-seng Koay


Extreme ultraviolet lithography, Gas lasers

Subject Categories

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology


Currently, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is a promising next generation lithography technique for enabling the scaling of device features beyond 22 nm. Out-of-band radiation in EUV exposure tools remains one of the critical issues that must be addressed before the implementation of this lithography technique for high volume manufacturing. Laser produced plasmas which use a carbon dioxide (CO2) drive laser pulse are more likely to be used to generate EUV radiation because of their scalability to higher source power. The out-of-band spectrum at the intermediate focus of EUV sources that use a CO2 laser produced plasma is dominated by scattered radiation from the drive laser which operates near 10.6 &mum wavelength. The unmitigated infrared radiation causes deformation of the optics in the lithography scanner making it difficult to maintain stringent overlay specifications. EUV transmission losses incurred as a result of using existing solid filters is of concern due to the limited source power currently achievable in these exposure tools.