Date of Award




Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Department of Psychology


Clinical Psychology

Content Description

1 online resource (iii, 108 pages) : illustrations.

Dissertation/Thesis Chair

Drew A Anderson

Committee Members

Mitchell Earleywine, Hazel Prelow


Assessment, Body Image, Eating Disorders, Ethnicity, Psychometrics, Body image in men, Body image disturbance, African American men, Men, White

Subject Categories

Clinical Psychology


Although body image research has historically focused on dissatisfaction among women, studies within the past decade have begun to focus on body dissatisfaction among men, revealing important gender differences in the nature, conceptualization, and assessment of this construct. Despite recent advances in the research literature in this area, few studies have examined ethnic differences in male body image, and no information is available on the psychometric properties of many of the most widely used body image measures for samples of ethnic minority men. The purpose of the present research was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS), the Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory (MDDI), and the Bodybuilder Image Grid-Original (BIG-O) among Caucasian (n = 461) and African American undergraduate men (n = 151). Measurement invariance and differential item functioning analyses supported cross-ethnic similarities for the MDDI, but less support was found for the DMS. Additional psychometric analyses mostly supported the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity of the three primary body image measures, though some subscales evidenced weaker support. Second, mediational analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between ethnic identity, sociocultural appearance attitudes, and body image and disordered eating in African American men. Finally, cross-ethnic comparisons revealed some differences in body image, disordered eating, sociocultural attitudes, and diet/exercise behaviors. Results are discussed in terms of the measurement of male body image in multiethnic samples and ethnic differences in body image and related constructs.