Date of Award




Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


School of Criminal Justice

Content Description

1 online resource (vii, 120 pages) : illustrations (some color)

Dissertation/Thesis Chair

Robert Worden

Committee Members

Steven Messner, Alissa Worden


Stop and frisk (Law enforcement)

Subject Categories



Previous research has shown mixed findings on a deterrent effect of Stop, Question and Frisk (SQF) on crime. As SQF is one of the most fundamental methods of police crime control, an accurate examination of the relationship between SQF and crime is critical. This dissertation examined spatio-temporal interactions of crime and those of SQF respectively, and then the spatial relationships between SQF and crime at microgeographic level, controlling for the effect of the street network. Using inhomogeneous cross K function with the exact location x-y coordinates of each point of both SQF and crime, this dissertation explored the spatio-temporal relationships between SQF and crime at the finest level (i.e., address) under random labeling hypothesis. To account for inhomogeneity of each point pattern, the street network density was used as a spatial covariate for a log linear model in the application of K function. The findings that crime and SQF were clustered in a specific period at all yearly, monthly, and weekly levels support law of crime concentration at place and hot spot policing of SQF. For the analyses of between times, crime patterns were independent at all three temporal levels when controlling for the street network effect while SQF patterns were repulsive. For spatial interactions between crime and SQF when controlling the effect of street network, the findings showed repulsive relationships at all three temporal levels, and it would be interpreted that SQF has deterrent effect on crime.


Requested ProQuest takedown; end date on 01-10-25

Available for download on Friday, January 10, 2025

Included in

Criminology Commons