Date of Award




Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Department of Environmental Health Sciences

Content Description

1 online resource (xxxviii, 318, [12] pages) : illustrations (some color)

Dissertation/Thesis Chair

Haider A Khwaja

Committee Members

David O Carpenter, Arden C Pope, Xianliang Zhou, Christopher J Walcek


Cardiovascular Diseases, Gaseous Pollutants, Karachi Pakistan, Particulate Air Pollution (PM2.5 Black Carbon Metals and Ionic Species), Source apportionment - PMF and EF, Southeast Asia, Air, Cardiovascular system

Subject Categories

Environmental Health


Ambient air pollution is a global environmental problem of concern with more than 95% of the world population living in areas with unhealthy air. World Health Organization (WHO) in 2019 stated that air pollution is a principal environmental risk to human health with about 7 million premature air pollution-related deaths annually. Several epidemiological studies have linked morbidity due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) to ambient air pollution exposure, especially in North America and Europe. However, the effect of air pollution in Karachi, Pakistan is understudied, which is the case for many urban centers in the developing countries. Karachi is a megacity with serious environmental and public health problems. Ambient air pollution concentrations have been reported to be extremely elevated in Karachi, Pakistan due to emission of air pollutants from vehicular traffic, industrial activities, and biomass burning. The numerous emission sources and rapid growth in population make Karachi a high priority for air pollution-related health effect investigation in order to promote public health. This study, being the first, broadly investigated fine particulate matter (PM2.5), its constituents (black carbon (BC), metals, and ionic species), and gaseous pollutants, temporal and seasonal variability, source apportionment as well as short-term association of daily exposure to air pollutants with morbidity due to CVD in Karachi, Pakistan.