Date of Award




Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)


Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology


School Psychology

Content Description

1 online resource (ix, 92 pages)

Dissertation/Thesis Chair

Benjamin G Solomon

Committee Members

Kirra B Guard, David N Miller


Explicit Timing, Mathematics, Proficiency, Response to Intervention, Skill x Treatment Interaction, Mathematical ability in children

Subject Categories



Various evidence-based mathematic interventions have been deemed effective in remediating skill deficits. However, despite recommendation of evidence-based intervention application within Response to Intervention (RTI) frameworks, little research has been done to differentiate intervention effectiveness, specifically Explicit Timing (ET), for students who present with varying skill proficiency prior to intervention implementation. The current study utilized secondary analysis of existing ET data that was supplemented with performance feedback as part of original intervention design (i.e. ET + Feedback). The purpose was to determine whether learning rates varied among students with differential baseline proficiency with the goal of determining proficiency’s relevance to treatment effectiveness. A secondary goal was to compare the utility of assessing and monitoring proficiency with either an accuracy or fluency predictor. The sample included 77 third-grade students, who attended a public elementary school in Upstate New York. Results from Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) indicated that initial proficiency is a relevant variable to consider in determining ET effectiveness, with results varying based on treatment conditions. Moreover, fluency was shown to be a superior predictor in assessing initial proficiency and monitoring treatment response. These findings are especially relevant for educators who wish to maximize treatment efforts. Future remediation efforts should consider the adoption of the following decision-making guidelines outlined in this study, to ensure that proficiency aligns with appropriate treatment. especially when considering implementation of class-wide intervention procedures for students with varying (and changing) proficiency.

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