Date of Award




Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Department of Chemistry

Content Description

1 online resource (xx, 131 pages) : illustrations (chiefly color)

Dissertation/Thesis Chair

Jun Wang

Committee Members

Jia Sheng, Qiang Zhang, Mehmet Yigit, Janet L. Paluh, Donghui Zhu


Cytokines, ELISA, Microfluidics, Multiplex analysis, Proteomics, Single-cell, Cell interaction, Immune response

Subject Categories



Since the early stages of biological research, the vital role of molecules in living creatures has been investigated and documented. According to Francis Watson's definition of the central dogma of biology, proteins are the final product of molecular biology and can't transfer information to other proteins like DNA or mRNA. Therefore, they are considered as the functional molecules of biology making them are more clinically relevant. However, the available techniques to study the protein characters, which coined laterally as proteomics science, are not well developed as genomics techniques did. Since the first human genome project is finished, the cost of genomics analysis is reduced from $100 K to below $100, while proteomics techniques are still in beginning. The study of proteomics is essential in clinical research, drug discovery, biomarkers discovery, and developing new diagnostics. However, the characters of proteins provide some challenges for their detection such as their inability to be amplified like DNA or RNA, the wides diversity of proteins in biological systems, and the post-transitional modifications that occur to most of them lead to difficulty to rely on one method in studying proteomics as well as, the high cost and experience required to use some techniques like mass spectroscopy. So, we aimed in this work to develop novel ultrasensitive, multiplex, and single-cell techniques for cytokines detection. Cytokines are a group of proteins involved in many diseases and biological processes such as cancer, inflammation, Alzheimer's, stem cell differentiation, and immune response which can be used as a potential biomarker for many diseases. Two different chip-based technologies have been developed for multiplex single-cell detection of cytokines to reveal the heterogeneity among immune cells in cytokines secretion profiles and the other one is to the cell-cell communications and growth factors among neural progenitor cells during their differentiation.

Included in

Chemistry Commons