Date of Award




Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Department of Psychology


Clinical Psychology

Content Description

1 online resource (v, 66 pages) : illustrations.

Dissertation/Thesis Chair

Drew A Anderson

Committee Members

Julia M Hormes, James F Boswell


Body Image, Gender, Media Literacy, Photoshop, Body image disturbance, Body image, Body image in men, Body image in women, Photography, Beauty, Personal, Media literacy

Subject Categories

Clinical Psychology | Psychology


Body image disturbances are associated with increased risk of depression, low self-esteem, and eating disorders. Research has established that exposure to images of idealized bodies can negatively impact an individual’s body image. The digital modification of such images is a widespread practice used by publishers, advertisers, and the general public alike. Recent attention has been focused on the inclusion of disclaimers labels on enhanced images as a way of preserving individuals’ body image. To date, several studies have explored the effectiveness of this intervention in women which have yielded conflicting results. Although evidence suggests that males are increasingly exposed to unrealistic depictions of idealized bodies and encounter similar negative effects, none of these studies have included male participants. As such, the current study sought to extend previous studies to better understand if disclaimer interventions are an effective tool at reducing body image dissatisfaction across genders. Participants (N = 411, 53.77% female) completed a two-part study where they viewed a series of advertisements displaying idealized bodies and completed measures related to body image and mood. Results suggest disclaimer interventions did not reduce body dissatisfaction following exposure to images of idealized bodies across genders. Moreover, the addition of a media literacy component did not improve the effectiveness of disclaimer labels. Importantly, the current study extends findings to men who have been historically overlooked in this area of research. Overall, these findings suggest that future efforts aimed at reducing the negative effects of exposure to idealized body images may benefit from utilizing other interventions over the inclusion of disclaimer labels on images.