Date of Award




Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)


Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology


School Psychology

Content Description

1 online resource (ix, 122 pages) : illustrations (some color)

Dissertation/Thesis Chair

David Miller

Committee Members

Benjamin Solomon, Callen Kostelnik


English Learners, Reading fluency, Reading intervention, English language, Reading, Reading (Elementary)

Subject Categories

Educational Psychology | Language and Literacy Education | Special Education and Teaching


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the HELPS Program on the reading fluency skills of English Learners (ELs) using a multiple-baseline single case design methodology. Participants in this study included five ELs attending a public elementary school in northern New York State. Students were identified for participation through a review of available records indicating below-average reading fluency skills and/or teacher recommendations based on reading fluency performance in the classroom. Visual analysis and Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) were used to evaluate Words Correct Per Minute (WCPM) scores from the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) passages as primary data and the HELPS reading probes as secondary data. The results of this study produced idiosyncratic results and overall did not unequivocally demonstrate that the HELPS Program is an effective intervention for promoting oral reading fluency among elementary ELs. Potential challenges of implementing the HELPS program with ELs and future research directions in reading interventions for ELs are discussed.