Date of Award




Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Department of Nanoscale Science and Engineering


Nanoscale Engineering

Content Description

1 online resource (ii, viii, 151 pages) : illustrations (some color)

Dissertation/Thesis Chair

Robert L Brainard

Committee Members

Serge Oktyabrsky, Michael Carpenter, Leonidas E Ocola


Electron, Extreme Ultraviolet, Photoacid Generator, Photolithography, Photoresist, Extreme ultraviolet lithography, Photoresists, Photochemistry, Electrons, Holes (Electron deficiencies), Monte Carlo method

Subject Categories

Chemistry | Condensed Matter Physics | Nanoscience and Nanotechnology


The microelectronics industry’s movement toward smaller and smaller feature sizes has necessitated a shift to Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) lithography to be able to pattern sub 20-nm features, much like earlier shifts from i-line to 248 nm. However, this shift from 193-nm lithography to EUV (13.5 nm) poses significant obstacles. EUV is the first optical lithography to operate in an energy range (92 eV per photon vs. 6.4 eV per photon for 193 nm lithography) above the electron binding energies of common resist atomic species. This significant energy increase complicates resist design. For exposures of equal dose, resists receive 14 times fewer photons in EUV relative to 193 nm. Thus, for EUV photoresists to be able to reap the benefits of smaller resolution they must also maximize absorption while still maintaining photo-reactivity. In order to design EUV resists for manufacturing, the first step is to understand the mechanisms of exposure involved in EUV photochemistry.