Date of Award




Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics



Content Description

1 online resource (ii, vi, 56 pages)

Dissertation/Thesis Chair

Lenore Gensburg

Committee Members

Melissa Tracy


condom use, drug use, female commercial sex workers, HIV, Ukraine, violence, Sex workers, Prostitutes, HIV infections

Subject Categories

Biostatistics | Epidemiology


A cross-sectional analysis investigated the association between HIV and violence in female commercial sex workers (FCSW) in Ukraine between 10/2015 and 01/2016. Methods: 3,885 FCSW from a total of 4,300 were questioned about behavioral and social demographics and tested for HIV in mobile testing van. Results: of the 3,885 respondents, 5.89% were HIV positive, and 47.00% had experienced violence. We tested for and found that drug use was an effect modifier for the association between HIV and violence. Analyses were stratified by injecting drug use and no injecting drug use. High risk for HIV was found in the non-IDU stratum among those FCSW who experienced violence (OR 1.99, CI95% 1.457, 2.724) adjusting for age, income and employment status. In the IDU stratum the effect of violence on HIV was reduced close to null (OR 1.07, CI95% 0.664, 1.751) adjusting for income and employment status, condom use and sex with foreigners. The potential confounders and effect modifier were verified by literature and statistical analyses. Conclusion: association between HIV status and violence was established. The research showed different effect of violence on HIV in IDU and non-IDU populations