Date of Award




Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Department of Chemistry

Content Description

1 online resource (xviii, 178 pages) : color illustrations.

Dissertation/Thesis Chair

Igor K Lednev

Committee Members

Jayanti Pande, Jan Halámek, Gerd-Uwe Flechsig, Michael J. Salyards


Blood donor age, Chemometrics, Forensic serology, Raman spectroscopy, Species differentiation, Time since deposition, Bloodstain pattern analysis, Bloodstains, Forensic hematology

Subject Categories

Biochemistry | Biostatistics | Chemistry


The field of forensic science is constantly growing, so the advancement of old and unreliable techniques is at the forefront of what will lead to future progress and improvement. Current methods for identification and analysis of bloodstains are underwhelming due to the insignificant amount of information provided in a destructive, unreliable, and unsafe manner. As is the purpose of this research, creating new methodologies that are rapid, nondestructive, robust, statistically reliable, and safe would significantly advance the way bloodstains are currently analyzed, while providing more useful and relevant information for investigations and criminal proceedings. Raman spectroscopy, along with advanced statistical analysis, has been used to analyze bloodstains in an effort to obtain forensically important and probative information. The specific aims for this work are determining the (i) time since deposition (TSD) and (ii) chronological age of a donor for bloodstains, and differentiate human blood (ii) from animal blood as well as (iii) from potential false positive materials. Research using Raman spectroscopy for these four topics is somewhat limited, and that which does exist needs significant improvements. Part of these improvements is the incorporation of statistically reliable results, as was called for in the 2009 National Academy of Sciences report, which stated that many areas of forensic science do not live up to the necessary standards. The methodologies developed herein will not only provide immediate and lasting improvements to the theory and practice of forensic bloodstain analysis as related to criminal justice, but also advance the field of forensic science to demonstrate the importance and versatility of Raman spectroscopy as a meaningful analytical technique.