Date of Award




Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)


Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology


School Psychology

Content Description

1 online resource (xiv, 163 pages) : illustrations

Dissertation/Thesis Chair

Deborah Kundert

Committee Members

Kevin Quinn, Benjamin Solomon


education, Response to intervention, school psychology, self-efficacy, Response to intervention (Learning disabled children), School psychologists, Self-efficacy, Remedial teaching, Educational counseling

Subject Categories

Educational Psychology | Psychology


Response to Intervention (RtI) is a prevention-oriented approach to helping all students succeed academically. It is a framework that, when applied properly, influences all decision-making within a school building and/or district. Currently, most American school districts report using an RtI framework. Specifics regarding implementation, however, are unknown at this time. Given that RtI is a systems-wide approach which is philosophically disparate from traditional ways of viewing students struggling academically, it has the potential to shift traditional school psychological roles. Our knowledge regarding the degree to which RtI has changed school psychologists’ practices is incomplete at this time. Additionally, there is extremely limited information regarding school psychologists’ self-efficacy for RtI-related tasks, yet the literature highlights that school psychologists should be prepared to take an active role in RtI implementation efforts. The current study attempted to a gain a broader understanding of current RtI implementation, by surveying a national sample of 392 school psychologists working in elementary school buildings. The results suggest that most schools are using an RtI framework, but are still in the beginning stages of implementation. A large percentage of participants (33-50%) were unable to identify whether the foundational components of RtI were in use. School psychologists described RtI as an effective method to help students succeed academically. They also reported being more often involved in data-based decision making activities within an RtI framework, as opposed to data-gathering activities. Furthermore, respondents indicated RtI was related to a decrease in assessment-related school psychological activities and an increase in intervention and consultation-related tasks. Most school psychologists reported that they are either not involved in RtI program evaluation and/or there was no program evaluation in their schools. Those surveyed perceived administrators as more heavily invested in teacher evaluation processes than in RtI processes currently. Most participants reported moderate-to-high levels of self-efficacy for all school psychological practices, including RtI-related tasks. Respondents also delineated those things that are likely to both facilitate and impede RtI implementation. The findings from this study have implications for university trainers; educational professionals; and, school psychologists.