Date of Award




Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology


Counseling Psychology

Content Description

1 online resource (vi, 61 pages) : 1 color illustration.

Dissertation/Thesis Chair

Michael V Ellis

Committee Members

Myrna L Friedlander, Jessica L Martin


arousability, empathy, supervision, supervisory working alliance, trainees, vicarious trauma, Secondary traumatic stress, Psychotherapists, Psychotherapy

Subject Categories

Counseling Psychology | Psychology


This study sought to contribute to the extant literature regarding clinical training and Vicarious Traumatization (VT; McCann & Pearlman, 1990) by exploring aspects of clinical supervision and psychology trainee characteristics as antecedents. By replicating and extending dissertation work by Fama (2003) and Moosman (2002), this study specifically investigated the supervisory working alliance (SWA; Bahrick), personal distress empathy (PDE; Davis, 1983), and trait arousability (TA; Mehrabian, 1995) as they relate to VT in psychology trainees. It was hypothesized that SWA would moderate the relations between PDE and VT, as well as between TA and VT, such that as working alliance increased, the magnitude of the positive associations between PDE and VT and between TA and VT would diminish. It was further hypothesized that SWA would be negatively related to VT, and both PDE and TA would be positively related to VT.