Date of Award




Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Department of Nanoscale Science and Engineering


Nanoscale Engineering

Content Description

1 online resource (xviii, 165 pages) : color illustrations.

Dissertation/Thesis Chair

Nathaniel C Cady

Committee Members

Hassaram Bakhru, Alain Diebold, Carl Ventrice Jr., Joseph van Nostrand


Doping, Ion implantation, oxygen vacancies, Photoluminescence, ReRAM, Nonvolatile random-access memory, Nanoelectronics, Nanostructured materials, Valence fluctuations, Semiconductors

Subject Categories

Electrical and Electronics | Materials Science and Engineering


Electrical switching requirements for resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices are multifaceted, based on device application. Thus, it is important to obtain an understanding of these switching properties and how they relate to the oxygen vacancy concentration and oxygen vacancy defects. Oxygen vacancy defects in the switching oxide of valence-change-based ReRAM (VCM ReRAM) play a significant role in device switching properties. Oxygen vacancies facilitate resistive switching as they form the conductive filament that changes the resistance state of the device. This dissertation will present two methods of modulating the defect concentration in VCM ReRAM composed of Pt/HfOx/Ti stack: 1) rapid thermal annealing (RTA) in Ar using different temperatures, and 2) doping using ion implantation under different dose levels. Metrology techniques such as x-ray diffractometry (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were utilized to characterize the HfOx switching oxide, which provided insight on the material properties and oxygen vacancy concentration in the oxide that was used to explain the changes in the electrical properties of the ReRAM devices.