Normative values on various word characteristics were obtained for abstract, concrete, and emotion words in order to facilitate research on concreteness effects and on the similarities and differences among the three word types. A sample of 78 participants rated abstract, concrete, and emotion words on concreteness, context availability,and imagery scales, Word associations were also gathered for abstract, concrete, and emotion words. The data were used to investigate similarities and differences among these three word types on word attributes, association strengths, and number of associations. These normative data can be used to further research on concreteness effects, word type effects, and word recognition for abstract, concrete, and emotion words,
Altaribba, Jeanette; Bauer, Lisa M.; and Benvenuto, Claudia, "Concreteness, context-availability, and image-ability ratings and word associations for abstract, concrete, and emotion words." (1999). Psychology Faculty Scholarship. 36.