Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Detailed mapping near Sivrice shows that the northern margin of the Bitlis Suture zone consists of three major tectonostratigraphic units outcropping as distinct north-dipping thrust slices. From south to north these are: (1) the Pütürge Complex; (2) the Maden Complex; and (3) the Elazig Complex.
The pre-Eocene Pütürge Complex consists of 80% metapelite, 15% metaquartzite, and 5% recrystallized limestone. These rocks represent a continental margin sequence that has been metamorphosed to the lower greenschist facies. There are three generations of structural elements: (1) a transposition foliation and macroscopic isoclinal folds, (2) a crenulation cleavage and mesoscopic folds, and (3) kink bands. Structural analysis suggests that the second-generation structures were produced by a deformation phase that was oriented northeast-southwest. The Middle Eocene Maden Complex consists of colored melange that contains seven lithologies (in decreasing order of abundance): volcaniclastics, volcanics, mudstone, calcirudite, pelagic limestone, massive limestone, and basal conglomerate. These rocks are interpreted as near-arc basin deposits. Fine-grained sedimentary rocks have served as the melange matrix and contain two generations of structural elements: (1) a uniform northeast-dipping slaty cleavage; and (2) kink bands and folds. The Upper Cretaceous Elazig Complex consists of four units (from bottom to top) : (1) metagabbro; (2) diabase; (3) basalt; and (4) andesite. The basalt unit contains calc-alkaline volcaniclastic horizons and many andesite dikes. Contacts between the units are structural except for a gradational lithologic contact between the diabase and metagabbro units. The Elazig Complex is interpreted as a mafic island arc terrain.
Because of their similar orientation, the first-generation structures in the Maden Complex probably are related to the second-generation structures in the Pütürge Complex. These structures are interpreted to represent Medial Eocene assembly of the northern margin of the Bitlis Suture. First-generation structures in the Pütürge Complex are pre-Medial Eocene. Third-generation structures in the Pütürge Complex and second-generation structures in the Maden Complex probably formed during late Miocene suturing to the south.
The Neogene East Anatolian Fault cuts these units and is characterized by oblique-slip faulting near the Lake Hazar pull-apart basin.
Hempton, Mark R., "Structure of the northern margin of the Bitlis Suture Zone near Sivrice, southeastern Turkey" (1982). Geology Theses and Dissertations. 112.
Plate 1A - Geological map of the Sivrice area, SE Turkey (~1:10,000 scale) - Map part A (uncoloured geological outcrop map)
hemptonpl1b.pdf (6557 kB)
Plate 1B - Geological map of the Sivrice area, SE Turkey (~1:10,000 scale) - Map part B (uncoloured geological outcrop map)
hemptonpl1c.pdf (3834 kB)
Plate 1C - Geological map of the Sivrice area, SE Turkey (~1:10,000 scale) - Map part C (uncoloured geological outcrop map)
hemptonpl1dlgnd.pdf (1430 kB)
Plate 1D - Geological map of the Sivrice area, SE Turkey (~1:10,000 scale) - Map legend (uncoloured geological map legend)
hemptonpl5E.pdf (923 kB)
Plate E - Geological map of the Sivrice area, SE Turkey (~1:10,000 scale) - Cross Sections (uncoloured geological cross sections)
hemptonpl6F.pdf (9332 kB)
Plate F - Geology of Hacibat Peninsula, Lake Hazar, SE Turkey (coloured outcrop geological map; scale 1:1000)