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Two type of organization are explicated: 1) the relationship between experiencing an event and assessing the event, and 2) the relationship of the status of a conversational action and the turn shape in which it is performed. Second assessments are performed when a recipient has had access to the referent assessed by a prior speaker. When the referent of an assessment is unrelated to the co-participants, respondents orient to agreeing as preferred. When the prior assessment is a self-deprecation, respondents orient to agreement as dispreferred. When the prior assessment is a compliment, recipients orient to multiple constraints.


The concept of preference has been used in numerous ways, sometimes to describe disparate phenomena. In each new study, it is crucial to explicate just what phenomenon is being investigated rather than just use the concept as if it is adequately explanatory.

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