Modifications found in the Anticodon Stem Loop (ASL) of tRNAs play important roles in regulating translational speed and accuracy. Threonylcarbamoyl adenosine (t6A37) and 5-methoxycarbonyl methyl-2-thiouridine (mcm5s2U34) are critical ASL modifications that have been linked to several human diseases. The model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is viable despite the absence of both modifications, growth is however greatly impaired. The major observed consequence is a subsequent increase in protein aggregates and aberrant morphology. Proteomic analysis of the t6A-deficient strain (sua5 mutant) revealed a global mistranslation leading to protein aggregation without regard to physicochemical properties or t6A-dependent or biased codon usage in parent genes. However, loss of sua5 led to increased expression of soluble proteins for mitochondrial function, protein quality processing/trafficking, oxidative stress response, and energy homeostasis. These results point to a global function for t6A in protein homeostasis very similar to mcm5/s2U modifications.
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Begley, Thomas, "Loss of Elongator- and KEOPS-Dependent tRNA Modifications Leads to Severe Growth Phenotypes and Protein Aggregation in Yeast" (2020). Biological Sciences Faculty Scholarship. 35.